OSA is a sleep disorder that involves cessation or significant decrease in airflow in the presence of breathing effort. It is the most common type of sleep-disordered breathing and is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep. These episodes are associated with recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturations and arousals from sleep.
1 in 3 Singaporeans are estimated to have moderate to severe OSA
Tends to affect male patients though females can suffer from the same condition
Associated with medical diseases:
OSA can occur in children as well. OSA in children has been recognised since the 1970s and since then the effects of paediatric OSA has been well-studied.
Consequences of untreated obstructive sleep apnoea include failure to thrive, enuresis (bed-wetting), attention-deficit disorder, behaviour problems, poor academic performance, and cardiopulmonary disease. The most common etiology of obstructive sleep apnoea in children is adenotonsillar hypertrophy.
Clinical diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea in the clinic is reliable and may not warrant a sleep study if the cause of OSA is obviously from the adenotonsillar hypertrophy. According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology 2011 Clinical Practice Guideline, a sleep study will be necessary in children who have comorbidities such as obesity, Down’s Syndrome, neuromuscular diseases, sickle cell disease or mucopolysaccharidoses. Overall, less than 10 per cent of children who suffer from OSA will need a sleep study before surgery.
Females may have atypical presentation of OSA. Snoring may not be a presenting symptom.